Joining you at this AFA Aerospace Luncheon is both a
personal pleasure and a great privilege. This occasion has a very special
importance for me because I have devoted a fair share of my lifetime to the
principles you are now advancing through all the activities of your
This luncheon also provides an opportunity for me to report
to you on the activities of the Air Force over the past year.
I propose to do this by discussing the accomplishments of
our people and of our operational6 forces. These are the two essential elements
that are required to carry out the Air Force mission of today.
The first of these is people.
We have in the Air Force today some 850,000 men and women in
uniform, and our requirements will continue at about this same level for as far
ahead as we can see.
These people are a group of highly skilled and extreme1y
capable individuals. They are professionals by any standards. They are managing
the world's largest business and manning some of the world's most technically
advanced equipment. I believe you will agree they are doing a commendable job.
Here are some of the steps we have taken this year to achieve
further improvement in our personnel skills. By gaining authority to almost
double the Air Force Academy student body we are now in a position to increase
eventually the number of annual graduates from 550 to 960—about thirty-one
percent of our annual requirement for Regular officers.
This year in the technical training field we graduated
We also trained about 1,700 pilots and 1,000 navigators.
And during the past year more than 3,600 officers and airmen
earned college degrees through our various educational programs.
Despite the challenges and rewards offered by an Air Force
career, we find too many of our people leaving the Air Force because of what
they regard as greater advantages in civilian life. The extensive training cost
associated with this personnel turnover is wasteful of the nation's resources,
and, what is more important, it reduces our combat effectiveness. So it is no
wonder that we are concerned about this turnover and want to attract and retain
in the Air Force the high caliber of people that we require for our aerospace operations.
I think to do this we must provide our people with two
important things—deserved recognition and adequate compensation. There are
other factors that affect personnel retention, but these two—recognition and
compensation—I consider of paramount importance.
As concerns recognition, we have to consider the basic
public attitude toward our military people—toward the sacrifices they are
being called upon to make and the hazards they have to accept in the day-to-day
course of their duties. Important also is the public attitude toward the
integrity and the motivation of the military professional.
In my thirty-five years of service I have seen the mood of
our country run hot and cold on each of these points. There have been
expressions of lavish praise and respect during periods of major
conflict—followed by a general feeling of indifference or even ridicule during
periods of relative calm.
On this score the citizens of this country should note that
our military people are fighting and dying today in opposing small-scale
aggression, just as they were during periods of major conflict.
Those who are not in combat are also making sacrifices. Our
aircrew personnel are averaging more than eighty hours per work week. Our
people in other operational assignments, in support areas and staff positions
are meeting comparable schedules.
This look at duty hours tells only part of the story. The
kind of work our people are doing is even more important. This work requires a
high order of skill, stamina, training, and experience.
I am confident that a wider appreciation of these points is
needed to accord the military profession its proper place as a highly respected
element of our society—not just in time of war—but throughout the long periods
of cold-war deterrent operations to maintain our current position.
With respect to adequate compensation I am encouraged by
favorable congressional action on the last two military pay bills. That action
indicates to me that Congress shares our views—both on just compensation for services
rendered and on the importance of pay as a career incentive.
I am gratified to hear that many in Congress favor an even
greater pay increase. The President, in turn, has ordered a sweeping review of
military pay and allowances. These factors are of key importance.
Military pay has not yet reached the level established for
comparable skills in industry. Even in government, recent Civil Service pay
increases have been more numerous and greater in amount than have military
increases. Now, I am in favor of adequate compensation for the Civil Service,
but I am certainly keenly aware that comparable increases have not been granted
military personnel even though they are called on to make the greater
sacrifices and face the greater dangers.
I know well that the Air Force Association, through its
highly effective programs, has greatly assisted in improving our Air Force
career incentives. We certainly are all grateful for your efforts.
Now, let me turn to the second element for discussion—the
achievements of our operational forces.
Our aim is to provide combat-ready forces that can prevail
at any level across the spectrum of conflict. Today these forces are being
maintained at the highest peak of efficiency, ready to respond to any assigned
mission in defense of the nation's interests.
Now on guard in our strategic forces are approximately
1,100 operational manned bombers and more than 800 operational ICBMs, with
fifty percent of our bombers and a substantially greater percentage of our
missiles on alert to get off well within our allocated warning time.
The modernization and improvement of this force are
continual. By completing a major structural modification of the B-52, we are
increasing its ability to penetrate and prolonging its useful life.
The Strategic Air Command recently conducted a series of
operational exercises which again tested the capabilities of its B-52 and B-47
long-range jet bomber fleet to deliver conventional ordnance. The B-47 and B-52
crews dropped a wide range of conventional weapons using a variety of delivery
techniques and tactics.
Another significant achievement has been the success of the
single-manager tanker force in refueling not only strategic 'bombers, but
Tactical Air Command aircraft during exercises, deployment, redeployment, and
training. In Exercise Desert Strike alone, SAC KC-135s performed 1,581
refuelings of TAC aircraft. Altogether, 4,200 KC-135 sorties were flown during
the past year in support of Tactical Air Command missions and, in fact, we have
successfully completed air-refueling capability tests with Navy and Marine
Our strategic forces represent a formidable package of
striking power. They are at peak effectiveness as they have been for a number
of years. I foresee no more rapid gains in efficiency. We have in one sense
reached the top of the curve and are flattening out. Of course we can always
make improvements, but you can't make big ones every year. And the Strategic
Air Command long since reached its peak and has maintained that peak without
any valleys ever since. As for SAC's success, I need only point out that there
has been no general war since 1945 and no limited war since Korea. Rather, the
Communists have been forced to carry out their aggression through covert means
and the so-called "wars of liberation." In future years the nation
will continue to require the irreplaceable margin of strength, flexibility,
and confidence in our strategic forces that we currently possess.
Turning now to aerospace defense forces, you should note
that they provide an essential element of our strategic deterrence. A strong
defense can provide warning for the launch of our retaliatory force and can
take a toll of attacking enemy weapon carriers, thereby saving American lives
At present our continental aerospace defense is strong in the
area of early warning and command and control. As a trip wire against surprise
attack by bombers or missiles, our Distant Early Warning Line and Ballistic
Missile Early Warning System are operating with a high order of reliability.
Our missile warning capability was considerably improved this
year with the integration of the third BMEWS site, located in the United
The capability for surveillance and tracking of space
objects has also improved through the addition of the new phased array radar,
faster data processing, and new computer programs.
We have manned interceptors and Bomarc missiles on continuous
alert—and so do the Canadians for their part of the North American Air Defense
Command. We installed in our first-line interceptors new intercept radar and
infrared search-and-track equipment. These aircraft, together with the Army's
Nike and Hawk missiles and certain naval elements, provide a credible
continental defense against the manned bomber threat.
In our tactical forces we have more than 1,700 fighters, 200
reconnaissance aircraft, and almost 450 transports.
In Europe and in the Pacific these tactical forces come
under the control of the Unified Commanders, and in the United States our
tactical forces operate under the Commander in Chief of the Strike Command,
Gen. Paul Adams.
Over-all, I am pleased with the quality of our tactical
forces. Introduction this year of the F-4C into the inventory is increasing our
air superiority, close support, and interdiction capabilities. Already we have
several operational squadrons of F-4Cs. The first flight of the next tactical
fighter, the variable-wing F-111, will take place this winter.
New tactical conventional ordnance is available that is many
times more effective than that which was used only a few years ago. New
tactical nuclear weapons provide a wide range of options for our national
authorities to consider.
In the area of reconnaissance, the RF-4C is entering the
Tactical Air Command inventory this month. It is a day-night, all-weather
aircraft. The RF-101, which is the backbone of our present tactical
reconnaissance force, is currently being fitted out with new sensors and
night-reconnaissance equipment. This modernization will enable the RF-101 to
operate in any environment.
We are all working diligently to improve our air-ground
teamwork. Last November we established the Tactical Air Warfare Center to find
new ways to work with the ground forces. Exercise Desert Strike, conducted this
past spring in California and Arizona and Nevada, involved approximately one
million men of the Army and Air Force. We are now in the midst of Exercise
Indian River, again involving extensive Army and Air Forces. These exercises
will further refine our air-ground concepts.
I believe that our tactical forces are in the best shape
they have ever been to carry out the difficult and hazardous tasks they are
required to perform on a day-to-day basis in every part of the world—and I mean
every part of the world. Our single-seat fighters now, as a matter of routine,
are flying both oceans continually.
I do not want to complete my remarks on tactical capability
without mentioning the work that is being done by our counterinsurgency forces.
Shortly after I became Chief of Staff I had to begin dealing with the airpower
implications of counterinsurgency operations in South Vietnam. We had not given
much thought to this kind of warfare in the past or to the best way of using
airpower in fighting it.
In the summer of 1961, we sent our combat advisers to South
Vietnam so that we could learn more about counterinsurgency and at the same
time teach the Vietnamese aircrews how to use airpower against the Viet Cong.
That program, on a stepped-up scale, is continuing. Our combat
advisers, now on the scene, are assisting the Vietnamese in fighting the war
and are keeping us posted on the lessons being learned.
Aided by information they provide, we are moving ahead with
the further development of counterinsurgency doctrine and equipment to improve
our air operations in this kind of conflict wherever it may occur. Today we are
also conducting counterinsurgency training not only in South Vietnam but also
in Latin America, Europe, and Africa.
In the airlift area, the Air Force provides the principal
support to the Military Air Transport Service. MATS now has more than 600
aircraft, which makes it thirty-three percent larger than the three largest US
After many years of struggling, we have finally begun to
develop the sort of airlift capability that I think is necessary. And we can
now more effectively support our nation's objectives during periods of major
crisis and in opposing limited aggressions. Last year's Exercise Big Lift, as
well as the day-to-day airlift conducted in support of military operations all
over the world, are examples of the type dividend produced by this capability.
We are continuing to receive the turboprop C-130, an aircraft which all the
services like. The new C-141 aircraft will begin to enter the inventory next
year. The addition of this aircraft will eventually triple the MATS airlift
Behind our regular operational forces are our dedicated and
capable Ready Reserves. Though they are "in reserve" in one sense,
they are in another sense very much an "integral part" of the
active-duty force in today's Air Force.
Our goal for the Air Reserve Forces is nothing less than a
"Ready Now" element, fully capable of carrying out a wartime
operational mission. To arrive at this goal, we have assigned operational tasks
to our Reserve units, as opposed to merely having them perform training
exercises for the sake of proficiency. Our Reserve Forces transport units, for
example, haul actual MATS cargo. Last year they airlifted twelve million pounds
To strengthen our air defenses, sixty aircraft of the Air
National Guard are constantly on runway alert under active Air Force control.
No one is merely boring holes in the sky.
To be able to augment the Regular forces by calling on Reserve
units is essential in this day of frequent and unpredictable Communist-inspired
The present "Ready Now" Reserve status has been
reached as the result of steady progress since the end of the Korean conflict.
Let me give you an example of that progress. In 1961, at the height of the
Berlin crisis, we sent the 117th Tactical Reconnaissance Wing of the Air
National Guard to Europe. They crossed the Atlantic in an island-hopping
operation, stopping several times to refuel. Their total deployment time was
five days. Last month in Exercise Ready Go this same unit made the same
deployment in nine hours and fifteen minutes. The difference was airborne refueling,
a technique the 117th had mastered since the Berlin crisis.
I'm sure the members of the Air Force Association share with
me the pride I take in the Air National Guard and the Air Force Reserve.
In my comments today I have tried to underscore the
importance of attracting and retaining high-caliber people to man our modern
aerospace forces—and have discussed our improvements in weapon systems and
operational techniques which will add to our combat potential.
By maintaining superior forces to implement our deterrent
strategy across the full spectrum of conflict, we can foreclose the enemy's
initiative by putting him in a position where he has no profitable options for
aggressive action. I believe that state of affairs should not only be achieved,
but preserved as the present-day method of maintaining the peace that we all
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